Otimização multiobjetivo de sistema de abastecimento de água rural. Ingeniería del Agua . A falta de água em sistemas de abastecimento de água obriga a população a assumir . Em: Abastecimento de água (M.T. Tsutiya, ed.). [email protected] E-mail: @ Brasil entre e que afetou o abastecimento de água em várias regiões e em especial. adjusted to the system, oftenly allow significant energetic savings (TSUTIYA, ). do custo de energia elétrica em sistemas de abastecimento de Água, tribución de Agua, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Universitat Jaume I de .

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The sera of horses and 30 caimans were initially tested using a flaviviruses-specific epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay blocking ELISA for the detection of flavivirus-reactive antibodies.

The seropositive samples were further tested using a plaque-reduction neutralisation test PRNT 90 for WNV and its most closely-related flaviviruses that circulate in Brazil to confirm the detection of specific virus-neutralising antibodies.

Of the 93 Louis encephalitis virus, 18 No virus genome was detected from caiman blood or mosquito samples. The present study is the first report of confirmed serological evidence of WNV activity in Brazil. Inan unknown neurotropic virus called West Nile virus WNV was isolated from the blood of a low-grade febrile woman from northeastern Uganda Smithburn et al.

Afterwards, WNV was detected in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe and was associated mainly with sporadic or size-limited outbreaks of WNV fever, which was usually a self-limited and uncomplicated febrile syndrome Couissinier-Paris However, in the mids, a major WNV fever epidemic in Europe with a high rate of neurological infections occurred in the lower Danube valley and Bucharest areas in Romania Tsai et al.

Concomitantly, human and animal outbreaks of WNV fever with neurological disorders were reported in the old world, which warned of the change of WNV fever impact on animal and public health Tber AbdelhaqPlatonov et al.

InWNV definitively reemerged as a worldwide major public health and veterinarian concern when it was detected in the Western Hemisphere for the first time as the cause of human and equine encephalitis outbreaks concomitant with extensive mortality in birds in the northeastern United States of America USA CDC The Brazilian Pantanal was selected as a suitable place for the study of WNV circulation because of the following factors: The Pantanal is a tropical, seasonal wetland of approximatelykm 2 that is fed by tributaries of the upper Paraguay River in the centre of South America, which covers mainly Brazilian but also Paraguayan and Bolivian territories and is classified as one of the largest freshwater wetland ecosystems in the world Alho Recent studies have demonstrated that some crocodilian species may be infected by WNV Steinman et al.

Taking these data into account, the unsuccessful efforts to detect WNV circulation in the avian hosts in Brazil and the widespread, high prevalence of the Crocodilia species, Caiman crocodilus yacarein the Brazilian Pantanal Campos et al. No morbidity was observed during the sampling period and only apparently healthy horses and caimans were sampled in the present study.

Considering the free circulation of mosquitoes, horses and wild caimans in large ranches, sample collections for the study were undertaken in a square-kilometre 70, ha area Figure. Samples collections – Adult mosquitoes were captured at sites that were randomly selected using CDC automatic light traps and manual aspirators while landing to blood-feed on horses and research team members as routinely reported.

ABASTECIMENTO DE AGUA tsutiya | Claudean Soares de Oliveira –

The mosquitoes were grouped into pools of up to 50 individuals that were sorted with respect to trap, site of capture and species and they were then stored in liquid nitrogen in the field. Caimans were captured from sites where a high concentration of these animals was observed. The vua were seized by boat in lentic systems that were formed by intermittent rivers abasteciimento taken to the banks.

All animals were weighed, measured, gendered, numbered and bled before release. The whole procedure was performed only with physical restraint and tzutiya animal was worked and released within 15 min. Caiman blood samples were obtained by puncture of the internal jugular vein between the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae as described previously Olson et al.

Blood samples were taken from horses of different ages from different ranches. Concomitantly, an interview was conducted with the rural workers of the ranches that were visited who were asked if they had seen horses with any abnormality, such as clinical signs that involved the central or peripheral nervous system.


We also collected information about the sex, age and breed of the horses that were present. Additional information included whether the horse had recently tsuiya vaccine or medical treatment guaa whether any horse had been moved into or out of South Pantanal.

Briefly, the ability of the sera to block the binding of the monoclonal antibody 6B6C-1 to the WNV antigen was compared to the blocking ability of negative control horse serum. The monoclonal antibody 6B6C-1 is appropriate to screen for any flavivirus-reactive antibody.

Data are expressed as relative percentages. Briefly, two-fold dilutions that ranged from 1: Virus isolation – The caiman sera and mosquito samples were assayed for virus isolation. The caiman serum samples at 1: The incubated cell flasks were observed during 14 days to look for any evidence of viral cytopathic effect CPE.

Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR – The molecular approach was performed in all caiman serum samples and the mosquito samples in which the inoculated flasks showed CPE in virus isolation. Serum samples of horses from four of the six studied cattle ranches were sampled. Most of these equines were adult, tame, healthy thoroughbreds of the Cavalo Pantaneiro breed.

From the remaining 58 From the five horses that were seropositive for WNV, two horses had dates of birth available and were four and five years old at the time of blood collection.

All WNV-seropositive samples were retested for confirmation and the antibody serum titres were 1: These five WNV-seropositive horses came from three out of the four ranches where horses were sampled. Concerning SLEV of the nine seropositive horses from the four ranches sampled, six had dates of birth available with ages that ranged from four years old.

Of 18 ILHV-seropositive horses, 12 had available dates of birth with ages that ranged from three years old in animals from all of the ranches where horses were sampled. None of these animals had a history of travel and their antibody serum titres ranged from 1: From the three horses that were seropositive for CPCV, two had available dates of birth and were 12 years old at the time of blood collection.

These two animals were from the same ranch, had never left the region and had antibody serum titres for CPCV of 1: Because the antibody titre difference for the other flaviviruses assayed was less than four-fold, it was considered seropositive for an undetermined flavivirus. Thirty caiman specimens up to 1.

Items where Year is – Munich Personal RePEc Archive

A total of 1, mosquitoes from 10 species were captured at 19 sites that were randomly selected on five ranches. Specimens of the following species were captured: Ochlerotatus scapularisPsorophora albigenuSabethes albiprivusCulex declaratorCulex quinquefasciatusMansonia titillansAnopheles albitarsis s. The mosquitoes were grouped into 65 pools of up to 50 individuals that were sorted with respect to trap, site of capture and species.

Of a total of the 65 mosquito pools that were assayed, one 1. Nevertheless, abastecmiento the Tua, the pool and the supernatant from the sequential passages was negative to flaviviruses and alphaviruses as measured by RT-PCR. Flaviviruses serological abastrcimento result interpretation is sometimes complex and requires careful tstiya Komarespecially where data from areas of intense flaviviruses co-circulation is expected, such as for South American countries.

Tsuiya the complex cross-reactivity of flaviviruses, several studies have adopted ELISA as a screening method followed by more virus-specific serological tests, such as PRNT methods Blitvich et al.

Based on the results that were obtained with the blocking ELISA, 93 horse sera presented antibodies to flaviviruses. According to our data, in conjunction with the fact that blocking ELISA does not require the use of multiple capture antibodies, which designated this test as useful for virtually any vertebrate species, the present study corroborated the application of blocking ELISA as an efficient screening method for flaviviruses serosurveys.

We have searched for the circulation of WNV in a country with an intense circulation of other flaviviruses.

To minimise abastecmiento cross-reaction results in this serosurvey to WNV, we considered the seropositivity for WNV and for each of the other flaviviruses assayed, only sera with a 1: However, considering these criteria, 56 Considering the similar maintenance cycles of the flaviviruses that were assayed together with the hypothesis of its co-circulation in ce South Pantanal, the original antigenic sin phenomenon may have had an effect on the difference of antibody titres among guua flaviviruses that were assayed and some sequential tsutiy by a heterologous flavivirus species may not have been detected.


Of the 56 horses that were seropositive for an undetermined flavivirus species, 13 Therefore, it is possible that the other 13 7. This prevalence is similar to the values previously reported for horses from other countries of Central and South America, such as Venezuela, where a prevalence of 4.

Despite the adoption of the same criteria for the detection of WNV-seropositive animals, it is important to note the difference of the flaviviruses that were used in gia PRNT methods that were performed in different areas.

Although ROCV, which is an indigenous Brazilian flavivirus species, was the causative agent of an extensive encephalitis epidemic in Southeastern Brazil in the s Tiriba et al. Based on our serological data, we reported indirect evidence that argues for the silent activity of WNV in the Brazilian Pantanal. Considering this hypothesis and taking into account the age available for the seropositive animals of four and five years old, we can infer that at least during the period fromWNV circulated in the area.

For CPCV, the two seropositive horses with available dates of birth were 12 years old; therefore, the period of probable circulation was difficult to determine. Although a better estimation of recent circulation of these flaviviruses for future surveillance should be based on IgM assays, our data suggested the viral activity after of at least three flaviviruses, including WNV, in the Brazilian Pantanal.

We encourage further more encompassing surveys for WNV in the South Pantanal and other bordering areas that especially focus on virus isolation to definitively confirm the circulation of WNV in the region, and consequently, identify vectors and vertebrate hosts that are involved in the virus local maintenance cycle and transmission. Despite of the serological evidence of horse infections by WNV in the Pantanal region presented here, morbidity was not observed, which suggests that WNV could be circulating through silent enzootic cycles in an area with pristine conditions.

In fact, WNV has not been related to horse disease in most of the South American countries with the exception of Argentina Morales et al. However, WNV is an important cause of encephalitis in horses in the USA and should be considered in the future in the differential diagnosis of neurological infections in horses from South Pantanal.

Abastecimento de Água tsutiya

Despite of the small number of caimans that were tsutiys, the negative results obtained using virus isolation, RT-PCR and tsuiya ELISA suggested that the participation of caimans in flaviviruses cycles in South Pantanal is improbable.

Nevertheless, the high prevalence of this crocodilian species in the Pantanal and the high concentration that was observed in some remaining collections of water during the dry season associated to the present data of serological evidence of the activity of members of JEVG in the aastecimento justify the need of further arbovirus investigations in local caimans.

Further investigations of the other arbovirus groups are currently in progress. Finally, we have reinforced that the Brazilian Pantanal is an interesting scenario where sylvatic flaviviruses cycles are probably maintained in silent progression in a relatively balanced ecosystem. The recently increased environmental degradation of this sensitive, complex biome could lead to changes in the intricate ecological relationships that disturb natural enzootic arbovirus cycles, which potentially favours local arbovirus outbreaks.

Environmental degradation in the Pantanal ecosystem. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development. Trends Mol Med 7: West Nile virus epidemic in horses, Tuscany Region, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis 8: Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of West Nile virus antibodies in domestic mammals.

J Clin Microbiol Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in horses, Coahuila state, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis 9: Epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of serum antibodies to West Nile virus in multiple avian species. West Nile virus, Venezuela.

Emerg Infect Dis Outbreak of West Nile-like viral encephalitis-New York, Morb Mortal Wkly Rep West Nile virus in Europe and Africa: Bull Soc Pathol Exot Am J Trop Med Hyg