Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian. He had a reputation for his highly non-orthodox theories of ethnogenesis . Москва: Наука. The Hsiung-nu in China (); Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth (); Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe (). This chapter discusses Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis. Generally speaking, ethnogenesis proceeded in the following manner. At certain historical moments. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth has 98 ratings and 9 reviews.

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Well then, ehnogenesis us draw a conclusion for the new seance of observations, i. This page was last edited on 8 Novemberat Remains of groves have been discovered in the steppes of Mongolia and Kazakhstan but it is impossible to say from them whether they died out from desiccation or from being chopped down by people; and even if the latter were demonstrated, the time of savage treatment of the landscape would still remain unknown.

Andd tribal alliances arose on the basis of acceptance, for example Kazakhs, Yakuts, etc. The ‘axial time’ was, as it were, the root of all subsequent history. Alik Hamdamov rated it it was amazing Nov 25, Central Asia was inhabited by Sogdians in the seventh century A.

But what does that have to do with ethnogenesis? And it would simply have been impossible since the Mongol horsemen were not equipped with the necessary trenching tool.

Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere

This last phrase he adapted from the traditional term ” Tatar Yoke ” for the Mongol domination of medieval Russia, a term Gumilyov rejected for he did not regard the Nad conquest as a necessarily negative event.

But the observation already made is enough to attest the complexity of the effect which can be called ethnic in the sense ‘stock’ or ‘breed’ and which can be taken as an aspect for constructing an ethnic history of mankind. The dam has survived to the present in the form of a wall. One author bios;here draw attention to nature, but another, in the next century, did not; and it could turn out that rains were mentioned more often in a dry time than in a wet one. The density of the species’ distribution varies biospherr, with the exception of the polar ice-caps, the whole of the earth is man’s habitat.


Only such an approach will make it possible to compare dissimilar phenomena and so yield reliable conclusions. This singling out is characteristic of all epochs and countries: This town ‘has rich lands The broad dry steppe from the Orhon to the Volga is bloodstained.

Ethnogeneeis yourself what is accessible to direct observation. The approach suggested here is nothing other than the analysis, i. Battle with the editor. He picked many of them, so that Persian began to predominate in his Arab army. On the other hand, preaching sometimes unites a group ethnogemesis people, which becomes an ethnos-the Sikhs in northwest India, for example, and the Ottoman Turks see above. It goes without saying that achieving the ‘path of perfection’ is the affair of the few.

And in those centuries the inhabitants of Turfan, Karashahr, and Kucha bioslhere to call themselves Uighurs.

Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere – Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev – Google Books

There is not unanimity of opinion on that among modern scholars. It is reasonable to study processes social, ethnic, and cultural rather than nuances of the sensations of historical personages. For when Ratzel tried to substantiate the geographical character of ethnographic division into districts he by no means disputed the conception of animism, sympathetic magic, or ritual murder of a priest, i.

Europeans’ communion with other cultures was limited to the Mediterranean basin, on the coasts of which lived descendants of subjects of the Roman Empire, some of them converted to Islam. Everyone is not only a member of some society or other that is at a certain level of development, but is also a physical body subject to gravitation, and the final link in some adn, an organism capable of adaptation and existing at an age determined by the effect of hormones.

Some found refuge behind the Great Wall of China, others in the mountain defiles ethnogenesiis the Tarbagatai Mountains, and others on the banks of the Yaik now the Ural and Volga-the Hsien Pei pursuers did not go so far. Why is there no sign of it?

Lev Gumilev

Two or more components always operate during ethnogenesis. But the difference between them and the Uighurs was immense. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. One surprise follows ethogenesis. In addition the term ‘Sinkiang’ includes Jungaria also a conventional and later namelocated north of the Tien Shan, which had a quite different historical fate. The observations are fed into the spacecraft’s computer, which rejects data not of interest to the spacemen, leaving only what is connected with human culture.


History is the study of processes taking place in time, but what that time is nobody knows. Misunderstandings like that were followed by punitive expeditions that led to the extermination of whole tribes. The point is complicated by the fact that any historical phenomenon war, the promulgation of a law, the building of an architectural monument, the founding of a princedom or republic, and so on has to be treated in several degrees of approximation, the comparison of which, moreover, yields contradictory results at biospbere glance.

Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth by Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev

The third conception seems to me to be the only correct one. Compare seventeenth century Moscow with its boyar hats and beards, when women spun behind mica windows, or eighteenth-century Moscow when magnates in wigs and camisoles took their wives to balls, and nineteenth-century Moscow when bearded nihilist students educated young ladies from all estates; and add the decedents of the early twentieth century.

It lies in libraries For some reason torrents of blood were spilled at the beginning of the nineteenth century only in order for war-torn Latin America to fall into the hands of trading companies of Great Britain and the USA.

Their memory lives; but a world remembered, like the world of dreams, is nothing; and remembering no better than to dream. Although the official Soviet authorities rejected his ideas and banned most of his monographs from publication, Gumilyov came to attract much publicity, especially in the Perestroika years of A country and people without a name.

The river is a reliable reference point, in any case neutral and lasting. But what are we to take as ‘relating to the problem’? biospherf

We therefore only know eyhnogenesis it was located. But a foreigner who observed Chinese etiquette was regarded as a Chinese. They created feudal institutions before all other peoples.

One can therefore say that the problem of ethnogenesis ethnoegnesis on the boundary of historical science where its social aspects pass smoothly into the natural ones. Perhaps its unsoundness was not rooted in its postulates, but rather in lack of skill in applying them.

Stars and planets move across the sky.